TBH Toolkits are modeled after the training protocols used in the FINGER Study and the ACTIVE Trial which demonstrate that we can train for improved neuroplasticity and lower our chances of serious memory loss.
FINGER (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability). Participants received a multi-domain intervention consisting of nutritional guidance, exercise, cognitive training and social activity, and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors.

Participants in the treatment group registered significant gains in daily activities that naturally decline with age including:

  • a 83% improvement in executive function
  • a 150% higher score in speed of processing
  • a 40% memory task performance increase

ACTIVE Trial (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 group training trials: Memory, Reasoning, Speed of Processing, and No Contact Control.

Each intervention improved cognitive ability for that which they were trained directly after the intervention period:

  • 87% of the speed of processing group demonstrated improvement
  • 74% of the reasoning group demonstrated improvement
  • 26% of the memory group demonstrated improvement



The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): study design and progress.
Alzheimers Dement 2013 Nov

“The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia.”

A 2 year Multidomain Intervention Of Diet, Exercise, Cognitive Training, And Vascular Risk Monitoring Versus Control To Prevent Cognitive Decline In At-Risk Elderly People (FINGER): A Randomised Controlled Trial.
Lancet 2015 Jun

“Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.”


Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults
JAMA 2002 Nov

“Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline…Booster training enhanced training gains in speed and reasoning interventions.”

Long-term Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults
JAMA 2006 Dec

“The reasoning group in particular reported significantly less difficulty in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) than the control group.”

The ACTIVE Study: Study Overview and Major Findings
J Aging Health 2013

“Each intervention produced an immediate improvement in the cognitive ability trained (K. Ball et al., 2002) that was durable through five years of follow-up (S. L. Willis et al., 2006). Each type of training produced its largest effect immediately after the intervention and with some dissipation over time; however, training gains remained statistically and practically significant at the 5 year follow-up. At five years, subjects in all three intervention groups reported significantly less difficulty than did participants in the control group in performing instrumental activities of daily living.”

Reasoning Training in the ACTIVE Study: How Much is Needed and Who Benefits?
J Aging Health 2013 Dec

“Training resulted in improved reasoning performance through year five …. Training adherence resulted in greater training effects.”

Ten-Year Effects of the ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults
J Am Geriatr Soc 2014 Jan

“Each ACTIVE cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group.”


Summary Of The Evidence On Modifiable Risk Factors For Cognitive Decline And Dementia: A Population-Based Perspective
Alzheimers Dement 2015 June

“The Alzheimer’s Association believes there is sufficiently strong evidence… to conclude that regular physical activity and management of cardiovascular risk factors reduce the risk of cognitive decline and may reduce the risk of dementia. The Association also believes there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude that a healthy diet and lifelong learning/cognitive training may also reduce the risk of cognitive decline.”

The Impact Of Cognitive Training And Mental Stimulation On Cognitive And Everyday Functioning Of Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis
Ageing Res Rev 2014 May

“Compared to no intervention, cognitive training improved performance on measures of executive function (working memory, processing speed) and composite measure of cognitive function. …cognitive training improved performance on measure of memory and subjective cognitive function.“